Noted Pathological Conditions in Human remains

Spinal Joint Disease
Vertebral osteophytes  
These are characterised by projections of bone protruding from the side of the vertebral body and are caused by the nucleus pulposus pressing against the anterior longitudinal ligament, thus inducing bone formation (Steinbeck, 1976).

Schmorl's nodes
These are seen as erosive lesions on the surface of the vertebral body, are caused by herniation of the central part of the intervertebral disc, the nucleus pulposus, through the surrounding annulus fibrosus.

Dental Pathology
Enamel hypoplasia
This represents periods of cessation in growth in the laying down of enamel during the formation of the tooth.  This is thought to be caused by episodes of physiological stress, possibly accounted for by periods of illness and/or malnutrition during childhood.

Dental Calculus
This represents calcified plaque.


These are lesions seen at the insertions of tendons and ligaments.  They are characterised by new bone formation at these sites.  Their distribution can sometimes suggest specific activity patterns.