These are characterised by projections of bone protruding from the side of the vertebral body and are caused by the nucleus pulposus pressing against the anterior longitudinal ligament, thus inducing bone formation (Steinbeck, 1976).
This represents periods of cessation in growth in the laying down of enamel during the formation of the tooth. This is thought to be caused by episodes of physiological stress, possibly accounted for by periods of illness and/or malnutrition during childhood.
These are lesions seen at the insertions of tendons and ligaments. They are characterised by new bone formation at these sites. Their distribution can sometimes suggest specific activity patterns.