Penannular

All the rings have circular sections.

48 sf. 192 Iron. Each terminal is a globular boss, and there seems to have been another such moulding set opposite the opening. The pin had a high arc.

 


192

An iron penannular brooch of diameter 32 - 35mm. The ball shaped terminals serve to suggest a provisional classification as Elizabeth Fowler's type A. A large mid-ring swelling opposite the terminals and two smaller swellings at right angles to this axis divide the ring into four. The pin is probably of oval section and is looped once around the ring without spreading observably in width. Corrosion products have formed a bridge of iron oxide which has linked the two terminals.

 

The moulding or bulge opposite the opening is paralleled on a brooch from Sawdon, Yorks, which also has the same kind of terminals as a pin with a high arc and which is essentially Iron Age (Stead 1979, 71, fig.26,8). Arched pins are relatively common in the north where it seems to be a persistent habit, but in the south brooches with pins having such a high arch should always be Iron Age, here, probably 1st century B.C.


49 sf. 63 The surviving terminal is coiled at right angles to the plane of the ring.

 


63

A large copper alloy penannular brooch 21 - 24 mm in diameter. The ring is of fine gauge, being of 1mm round section alloy and no decoration is evident although the metal is very pitted by corrosion. The terminals are coiled back on the ring as in Elizabeth Fowler's type C. The pin is roundish but is flattened out to 2mm in width where it forms a single loop around the ring. The metal of the pin has survived considerably better than that of the ring which would perhaps indicate a different formulation of alloy.

 

50 sf. 196 Tiny and complete, as the last, but the pin is present and is straight.

 


196

A very small, fine gauge copper alloy penannular brooch of diameter 12 - 15mm. The ring is of round section and the terminals are flattened and coiled back on the ring as in Elizabeth Fowler's type C. The pin is also of round section before becoming flattened and spread where it forms a single loop around the ring.

 

A review of this kind of terminal, excluding those in which the curve barely touches the ring, showed that the pattern here persisted through the 1st century, probably through the 2nd, but not really into the 3rd (Mackreth, forthcoming SMALL TOWNS IN THE ROMAN COTSWOLDS, OR SOME SUCH TITLE), the small size and thin section may be a sign that these two are 2nd century.


51 sf. 549 The terminals are turned back along the top of the rings, but the very poor condition of the piece only allows two slight cross-flutes to be seen on one of them.

 


549

A large copper alloy penannular brooch of diameter 28 - 30mm. The round section ring is undecorated and the terminals are folded back upon the ring as in Elizabeth Fowler's type `C'. The original pin is presumed missing and to have been replaced with a heavy iron strip which is wrapped twice around the ring.

 

52 sf. 198 Iron. The terminals are turned back along the top of the ring and the fully visible one has a slight turn up at the end.

 


198

A large iron penannular brooch of diameter 32 - 36mm. The ring is of round section and the terminals are folded back upon it as in Elizabeth Fowler's type C. The pin is absent. Hattat says that Hull's corpus has no type C's in iron.

 

The condition of Brooch 51 prevents any fine determinations, and the use of iron for Brooch 52 means that only the general form of the terminal can be taken into account. In general, such brooches are well represented in the 1st century and weaken towards the middle of the 2nd. The use of iron for Brooch 52 may indicate that this is a pre-conquest item.


53 sf. 205 Iron. The ring is forged at each terminal to produce a thin upright block projecting above the ring itself.

 


205

An iron penannular brooch of diameter 26 - 30mm. There is no sign of any folding or swelling of the terminals which are very close together and it is perhaps possible that the brooch is in fact a broken annular example. The ring is probably of round section and the flattened pin splays out where it is looped once around the ring.

 

The way in which, in plan, each terminal is narrow and, in full view, is stepped up from the ring, with no sign of a fold-over, places this brooch in a poorly dated group which occurs only in very late Roman contexts.


54 sf. 550 Although the lack of terminals prevents the sure identification of this as a Penannular brooch, the ribbing all round the ring would suit some varieties.

 


550

A copper alloy annular? brooch of diameter 24 - 36mm. The thin, round section ring is badly decayed but shows slight indications of the entire ring having been beaded. The pin is absent.